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The water distribution system in the cooling tower is designed to achieve the following functions:
– to ensure the nominal flow capacity of the water to be cooled, without discharge at basins and at the inner transport channels;
– to ensure the water transport, as needed, to all irrigated areas inside the tower;
– to ensure the required pressure at the nozzles, in order to achieve a good water dispersion;
– to ensure a good water distribution at partial flows;
– to easily decommission different areas from the irrigated surface, or commissioning other areas (ex. anti-frost protection);
– to be optimally positioned, relative to other functional or structural systems and components (tower fill, beams, columns, mantle tower), in order to decrease the pumping energy, to achieve a good irrigation of the fill, to limit the splashing of the constructive elements, to require simpler support systems of the distribution pipes.
Usually, the water distribution systems in cooling towers contain the following components:
– Water distribution pipes, supplied in standard dimensions (cut at the desired length and drilled for fixing the dispersion devices) so that they can be mounted in the tower. Usually the pipes are made of plastic (PVC), but at the request, there can be used pipes from other plastic materials or metallic pipes;
– Couplings, bends, branches and reducers that allow hydraulic connections between pipes or between pipes and existing water distribution drains;
– Overflow, ventilation, drainage equipment;
– Plugs or lids which are positioned at the free end of the distribution pipes and that allow, when removed, washing the deposits inside the pipes;
– Water dispersion devices and support systems of pipes or tubes (see their description constructive types).